Abstract Writing 101

The aim of this page is to help you develop a sense of what abstract writing is like and what it actually feels like to complete one. This is based on the structural approach called ‘moves”. One may ask what a move is. A move is a function of language use within a particular text type or genre.

What is an abstract?

An abstract is “a short form of a speech, article, book, etc., giving only the most important facts or ideas” (Cambridge)

An abstract is a summary of a larger academic work.

The Five-Move Approach

In general, an abstract has five moves. A move is an aim. They are (1) background or situation, (2) aim of the paper or study, (3) method, (4) results, and (5) recommendations or implications.


  1. •In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the application of AI chatbots in English language learning.
  2. This research investigated XYZ.
  3. Method
  4. Findings or Results
  5. Implications or recommendations.
Enter the 1st move:
Enter the 2nd move:
Enter the 3rd move:
Enter the 4th move:
Enter the 5th move:

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